Internet Archive, Ebooks and Texts. As a civic patron in Rome, even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired. [18] Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.[19]. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. Pope Linus (/ ˈ l aɪ n ə s / (); died c. AD 76) was the second bishop of Rome.His pontificate endured from c. AD 67 to his death. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. [25], "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. His election was manipulated by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II), … It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. In 1476, he issued the apostolic constitution Cum Praeexcelsa, establishing a Mass and Office for the feast. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. Sixtus VI was elected on 28 August 2007 in a Papal conclave, celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass on 1 September 2007, and took possession of his cathedral, the Archbasilica of St John Lateran, on 7 May 2005. Cardinal Medici was elected Pope on 25 December 1559. "Pope Sixtus IV." [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's … That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. 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He entered the Franciscan order in 1533 and was ordained at Siena, Republic of Florence, in 1547. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. His pursuit of political goals and unremitting efforts to aggrandize his family were seen as excessive. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Sixtus II is referred to by name in the Roman Canon of the Mass. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. Saint. [2] As a result, nearly all of the non-Venetian cardinals supported the continuation of Sixtus IV's policies of isolation towards the Republic of Venice, specifically the Peace of Bagnolo. Pope Pius V … Sixtus IV. [20] The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.[21]. On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. [16] Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon,[16] who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities. [2] Because of an intense dispute between the Colonna and Orsini, the city of Rome was marked by far more civil unrest during the sede vacante than was to be expected historically. Sixtus IV later studied philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia, and lectured at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, and Florence. The Catholic Encyclopedia. His accomplishments as Pope included the establishment of the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpiece of the city's new artistic age, the Vatican Archives. At the death of Sixtus IV, the conclave of cardinals that met to elect his successor numbered thirty-two cardinals. Pope Sixtus I(42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), a Roman of Greek descent,[1]was the Bishop of Romefrom c. 115 to his death c. Marcellino e Pietro, archbishop of Lisbon, Title of S. Crisogono, bishop of Recanati, 25 March 1471 (in pectore), 10 December1477, Title of S. Clemente, archbishop of Turin, Title of Ss. Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction; he was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482. Sixtus V, pope from 1585 to 1590, who reformed the Curia. ^ Lauro Martines, April Blood: Florence and the Plot Against the Medici, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 150–196. During the reign of Pope Paul IV, Cardinal Medici was out of favor. Pope Leo III sent him on diplomatic missions to Germany and to Hungary. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome. For the remainder of his pontificate, Sixtus turned to temporal issues and dynastic considerations. The conclave which assembled on the death of Paul II elected him pope, and he ascended the chair of St. Peter as Sixtus IV. Successor: Sixtus IV: Orders; Created cardinal: 1 July 1440 by Eugene IV: Personal details; Birth name: Pietro Barbo: Born: 23 February 1417 Venice, Republic of Venice: Died: 26 July 1471 (aged 54) Rome, Papal States: Previous post: Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria Nuova (1440–1451) Apostolic Administrator of Cervia (1440–1451) His accomplishments as pope included building the 25 Jul. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. [23] Almqvist & Wiksell International (1976), Perie, The Triple Crown, Spring 1935 p.26, Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, Butler, Richard Urban. [2] He succeeded Pope Alexander Iand was in turn succeeded by Pope Telesphorus. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. He succeeded Pope Alexander I and was in turn succeeded by Pope Telesphorus.His feast is celebrated on 6 April. [3] For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. Pope Sixtus iv was born in July 21, 1414, near Abisola, and died in august 12, 1484. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. In 1475 his successor Pope Sixtus IV founded the Palatine Library. He decreed that the people should chant with the priest during the Sanctus at the Holy Communion section of the Catholic Mass.. None of them actually states how he died. Pope Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. In November 1476, Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478, they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. The choice of this location for the university derived from the fact that the archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, as well as Uppsala being long-standing hub for regional trade. In order to prevent the selection of Cardinal Barbo, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. [1], The immediate context of the election was the nearly unprecedented packing of the College of Cardinals by Sixtus IV, not only in terms of overall size, but also in terms of cardinal-nephews and crown cardinals. Linus is named in the valediction of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul the Apostle in Rome near the end of Paul's life. Innocent VIII, pope from 1484 to 1492. He served twice (1557–60) as inquisitor general in Venice, his severity there causing his recall. His parents were poor, and while still a child he was destined for the Franciscan Order.Later he studied philosophy and theology with great success at the University of Pavia, and lectured at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, and Florence, having amongst other eminent disciples the famous Cardinal Bessarion. His bronze funerary monument, now in the basement Treasury of St. Peter's Basilica, made like a giant casket of goldsmith's work, is by Antonio Pollaiuolo. The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. Pope Sixtus IV : biography 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484 The English theologian John Bale attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the Cardinal of Santa Lucia.Giovanni Lydus, Analecta in librum Nicolai de Clemangiis, De corrupto Ecclesiae statu. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he … Sixtus IV, pope from 1471 to 1484 who effectively made the papacy an Italian principality. Title of Ss. "Variations of Popery", Samuel Edgar D.D. A building for the Vatican Library was constructed. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. Among the most important of these was that the university was officially given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna. Pope. According to the later published chronicle of the Italian historian Stefano Infessura, Diary of the City of Rome, Sixtus was a "lover of boys and sodomites", awarding benefices and bishoprics in return for sexual favours and nominating a number of young men as cardinals, some of whom were celebrated for their good looks. [10][11][12] However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, established a number of provisions. Sixtus's earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted. [24]. Sixtus founded the Spanish Inquisition through the bull Exigit sincerae devotionis affectus (1478), and he annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance. A marble tombstone marks the site. He was noted for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy. He is considered a Saint by the Catholic Church. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. The series implies that many of the more unsavoury parts of Sixtus' reign were really the work of his evil twin, who was out to gain power for himself. [3] That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. [22] This act of Sixtus IV had a profound long-term effect on the society and culture of Sweden, an effect which continues up to the present. The external dome was covered with lead and the bands were covered with bronze gilt. [2] Cardinal Borja led the first faction and Cardinal della Rovere, the second; these factions were roughly aligned with the Orsini and Colonna families, respectively. 1. [17], As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. He was made cardinal in 1467 by Pope Paul II, whom he succeeded on Aug. 9, 1471. At the beginning of his papacy, in 1471, Sixtus had donated several historically important Roman sculptures that founded a papal collection of art, which would eventually develop into the collections of the Capitoline Museums. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. As pope he is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. Sixtus IV replied with an interdict and two years of war with Florence. Vol. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. Sixtus IV named seven new saints with the most notable being Bonaventure (1482); he also beatified one person: John Buoni (1483). The election. (sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. Successor: Innocent VIII. In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. Before his papal election, Cardinal della Rovere was renowned for his unworldliness and had written learned treatises, including On the Blood of Christ and On the Power of God. The Sistine Chapel was sponsored by Sixtus IV, as was the Ponte Sisto,[7] the Sistine Bridge (the first new bridge across the Tiber since Antiquity) and the building of Via Sistina (later named Borgo Sant'Angelo), a road leading from Castel Sant'Angelo to Saint Peter. He is known for beginning construction of the Sistine Chapel. Louis was thus in conflict with the papacy, and Sixtus could not permit it. 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