Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Common cold. Eventually, as Albert says, opposite sides of the continent are dragged apart by subduction elsewhere and this added stress is enough to start a graben somewhere inside the continental crust. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD006864. But how badly would this have affected the world? But the major extinction events attributed to flood basalts can not have been caused by just sulfur. In high concentrations, exposure to sulfur can even result in burns on the skin. Beauty in sulfate: a desert rose from Tunisia, grown from gypsum. https://avo.alaska.edu/webicorders/Veniaminof/VNSS.php. Nimni ME, Han B, Cordoba F. Are we getting enough sulfur in our diet?. Nutr Metab (Lond). However, ingesting too much sulfur may cause a burning sensation or diarrhea. Lung cancer; Increased risk of cardiovascular disease; Increased risk of cardiopulmonary disease Katrina was Cat 3, Camille was cat 5. For the sake of this article I should probably also mention nyamuragira is also one of the biggest emitters of SO2 out of any volcano anywhere, even when it isn’t erupting it is in the range of 5000 tons a day…. (115 mph) In my opinion, this thing is more of a nuisance storm than anything else. The average emissions of 2000 tons per day gives 0.36 Tg of sulfur per year. [2006a, 2006b]. The fishers in the previous pic are on the beach area roughly in front of this house on the other side of the dune. It is a sign of decay, as in rotten eggs, and it is actively damaging to our bodies. Regardless of this, it is clear that there is no robust evidence of a widespread link between the cosmic ray flux and clouds. Could the air itself become lethal? Actually, may have been Trinidad scorpions, but by that time, who cares. . Thx again, Indonesia On average, a tenth of the volcanic sulfur emissions reach the stratosphere (1Tg per year), but it is concentrated in a few big explosive events which can increase the sulfur load of the statosphere to as high as 100 times the normal values. “A conservative bulk tephra volume for the TBJ event of ~84 km3 was calculated”. (The OJP occured under water which will have limited the impact.). Death was attributed to accidental inhalation of fumes of strong sulfuric acid during application to blocked drainpipes. In an efficient, airtight stove, this smoke is minimal, but it still isn't something that you want in the house. Per Nexrad, I’m in the 3.8 inch total range right now…. The haze enveloping many Chinese cities also contains sulfate, and there it is believed a second reaction contributes, involving NH3: 2NH3(g) + SO2(g) + 2NO2(g) + 2H2O(aq)→2NH4+(aq)+SO42−(aq) + 2HONO(g). Florence is generally headed to open water and will have to contend with a patch that is cooler than where it is at before it gets to warmer water… There is a chance that a blocking high will strengthen north of it, but that is not in the immediate idea of things to come. The second model suggests a much slower process where the lava flows underneath a solid crust, like the Kapoho flow field in its later stages. Sulfur dioxide irritates the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs. MOST of the contestants would die of respiratory failure. There are many sulfur minerals in rocks (such as pyrite, or FeS), and the ocean has a considerable amount of sulfate. There may not be a tephra deposit anywhere if the aerosol came from a large basaltic eruption. to land interaction will provide a brief window of opportunity for Source: wikipedia. ”More recently, sulfur dioxide has been lofted to higher altitudes where it may undergo long-range transport.” In high concentrations, sulfur dioxide can impair breathing and even be life threatening. (ethanol fuel will trash a small engine fuel system quite well) I noticed that not a lot of people were using local mass transit. Fishing along the coastal areas will stay messed up for a while. Sulfur is suprisingly common, but well hidden and not easy to see. Both of those were closer to lizards than dinosaurs, actually mosasaurs share a common ancestor with varanids and probably snakes. I hope one day there will be space crafts that can detect eruptions on super-earths, perhaps a surge in SO2 levels or means to detect sferics, indicating super-eruptions. In he bible, sulfur was known as brimstone, found around the Dead Sea where it too comes up from the deep. Flood basalts are deadly at large distance. The one exception is when fumaroles bring up sulfur through circulating water, exchanging gas with the magma. The reason for this is probably the eruption rate averaged over the length of activity. Super-earth sounds really fascinating places. The description given here was written down in the 19th century, and does not clearly refer to 535 AD. The Deccan traps was getting to 60 km3 of lava a year and that peak happens to occur over the KPg boundary, I think there is almost no doubt that this was a major part and the asteroid probably just sped up what was mostly an inevitability. Breathing in toxic fumes, carrying 70kg loads and left with short life expectancies: The horrific conditions faced by Indonesian sulphur miners so that you can use matches Whether the particles contain sulfur test. The hydrogen sulfide in … At that point, inland areas will have to deal with a low tracking up a front and the onshore flow will be quite moisture laden. Lethal levels for prolonged exposure are not readily available, but can be assumed to be lower: 1 ppm (2mg/m3) is disabling even for short durations. Anecdotally, one version of the story states that the only survivor floated out of a 3rd window on a mattress that became lodged in a pine tree 12 miles inland. Akutan – EAugustine – HomerAugustine – IslandAugustine – LagoonAugustine – Low-lightGareloi – GAKIGreat Sitkin – GSIGCleveland – CLCOGreat SitkinIliamna – EIliamna – IVEKanaga – AdakKanaga – KIMDKatmai – KABUMakushin – MREPOkmok – OKIFPavlof – BLHAPavlof – DOLRedoubt – CIRedoubt – DFRRedoubt – HutShishaldin – ISLZShishaldin – WTUGSpurr – CKTUgashik-Peulik – NWrangell WAZA Adams – SCrater Lake – OverlookLassen – ManzanitaRainier – Crystal MtnRainier – MuirRainier – ParadiseRainier – Sunrise Mtn.ShastaSt. First, a vast methane & CO2 bake-off as the plume approached the surface, then progressive sulphur emissions from the main eruptive phase. Even as sedate as this appears, only an idiot would be out in that. (The word ‘tera’ may well come for Thera, the big eruption which devastated the pre-Greek Mediterranean. 92L, being a long track Cape Verde system is the spooky one in my opinion. The word stands for ‘volcanic smog’ and refers to the mist of sulfur particles that hangs around, reduces visibility and irritates the throat. The event description you found could easily have been the cause of at least one of these if not the entire SO2 impact over this period. Tracking due north over a warm eddy current didn’t help and it was a mature Cat 5 at landfall. Maybe a new line has to be added directly between plinian and hawaiian that bridges that gap and bypasses the other kinds. About an hour ago they [finally] announced double red flags at the beach. (78 kt 10 meter winds). The sun, at noon, looked as blank as a clouded moon …, This dry fog was at ground level and the sulfur directly affected people and plants alike. He’s mad now, but not as miserable as he could have been. 3) I keep an “old fashioned” coffee pot around specifically for these sort of events. Winters are less bad and poles are likley temperate like it was during earths greenhouse eras. Barrager E, Veltmann JR Jr, Schauss AG, Schiller RN. FWIW, solar activity also directly impacts the height of the tropopause and by association the Junge Layer….however how much varies a great deal on latitude, and lag time. IIRC, the ‘Worst of Times’ suggested a two stage die-off. Breathing in sulfur dust can irritate the airways or cause coughing. I have been seeing warnings that Florence could make life interesting next week. Don’t underestimate oceanic SO2. The sulfur smell is a good indicator of a potential eruption – and it can kill well before the lava does. Lurk, I’m glad your power is back on and your frozen foods are safe. What did the Nile do in 1784? The very largest continental flood basalts occurs when Supercontinents starts to rift apart. Mars is between Earth and the Moon in size Between the two islands lay the mountain of Krakatoa: a volcano, slowly building up a head of steam and lava beneath its ice-capped surface. Thinned and fringed by thirty.. Debunked then. This explosive activity isn’t phreatic either, a study I read about kilaueas 1790 eruption showed that no amount of in situ groundwater would have any effect on an eruption big enough to classify as a VEI 4. {Hair today, gone tomorrow…}. But it is either this or a plume, not both. More recently I read somewhere a hypothesis that it erupted through a salt flat (or a salt marsh; the initial stages would have evaporated it into a salt flat rather quickly) and caused a toxic brew of chlorine and other unpleasant gases to be released into the atmosphere in large quantities. A colorless gas with a sharp, pungent smell, sulfur dioxide irritates the organs of the respiratory tract, including the nose and throat, causing wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. For instance, if magma degasses at high temperature, SO42- dissociates and SO2 forms, which stays in the melt. Many people in the open air experienced an uncomfortable pressure, headaches and experienced a difficulty breathing exactly like that encountered when the air is full of burning sulphur, asthmatics suffered to an even greater degree. It is very hard to proof that the events in Japan and India are related. On most scales laki is a VEI 4 , and so was eyafjallajokull. Mars and Venus have thicker crusts which insulate better, so their mantles stay warm and both have or have had major volcanic activity. Possible, I guess. Santa Rosa island is only accessible via bridge. One of the only large things that survived the notorious P/T great dying event was Helicoprion, the famous ‘buzzsaw shark’ and biggest animal that ever existed up to that point in earths history. And looking back, the major flood basalt eruptions can have poisoned a significant part of the continent they occurred on. Laki essentially made the mortality rate in Europe rise by around 5%. Although not infallible, our noses give us a powerful stimulus to stay away from it. And the wind profile for anyone who is interested. It seems that the sulfur comes from a different part of the magma chamber, and therefore does not scale linearly with eruption magnitude. And even if not in themselves causing mass extinctions, in combination with other effects (such as a major meteor strike) they do. But flood basalts occur tens of million years apart. Therefore CO2 is mainly produced by non-erupting volcanoes, and comes up all over the place, perhaps far from the eventual exit point of the magma. The bottom of the oceanic crust stays hotter. However this seems to be fairly stable. It would basically be a water world with a lot of Icelands and Hawaiis on it, like a bigger version of the hadean epoch, and there is no way you could call that habitable by our standards. Smithsonian has this on their site. Famous white skies occurred in 1257 AD, 538 AD, and 44 BC. Maybe there is already a massive magma body under this area and it is on the verge of erupting, or maybe eruptions that big have happened before but have been contained within the rift and buried by younger lava from nyamuragira. This entire area was over run by the ocean during Ivan in 2004. The satellite-based studies can be divided into two categories: (1) monthly to decadal timescale analysis and (2) daily timescale epoch superpositional (composite) analysis. Additionally, inhaled fumes, particularly if from a mist, can cause: * breathing difficulties * headaches * drowsiness * blurred vision * irregular eye movements * nausea * vomiting Material Safety Data Sheets show that repeated inhalation of antifreeze fumes may affect the central nervous system 1. Well that’s going to take more than a packet of grass seed to fix. I remember reading something about the unusual lava nyiragongo erupts being a sign of possible flood basalt activity there in the near future (geological future). Super Earths are larger it would generate more internal heat …a larger earth would be more geologically active. Enjoyed the read. Once the magma has a good route to the surface there is effectively a pressure equivalent to the uplift and given a big enough gap lava could be produced in epic proportions. (which I put at a low likelihood anyway), If you can find an estimate of the mass ejected, this might give a hint at how much of that was sulfur. In 2015 etna reached the edge of the stratosphere with a lava fountain. Last week, there was a minor outbreak of sunspots and one had reverse polarity. Also note that Wheller’s paper pointed out some pretty complex fault and crust interactions that may have affected the iron enrichment of the magmas and could throw my calculations way off, even if my method turns out to be correct. During solar min, there is a dearth of solar radiation that “sweeps” away cosmic rays, hence we are now seeing an corresponding increase in these high-energy particles making it to Earth. The reason the parana traps didn’t cause a mass extinction could be an indicator that this was not anywhere near as big as the others, maybe more of a tortoise than a hare. Kilauea is there, but is not the largest. Today mars litosphere is extremely thick and inmobile tectonics are Impossible. White sands, New Mexico, a gypsum desert. Some eruptions attributed to nyamuragira have happened very far from its summit to the north and south and these could have been fed from depth rather than lateral intrusions. The mantle heat also depends on how well the crust insulates. Fun fact. A denser air and higher air pressure ( 3 bars ) raises the oxygen pressure and allows animals to grow larger and supercharges their muscles. Still, it is very minor compared to the human production, bad for Hawaii but insignificant further afield. However, if there is a gas leak in the home, a person may notice: the smell of sulfur or rotten eggs Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Abridged volume 15, 604.). Had some Carolina Reapers that I had grown the year before and frozen. But the most powerful intraplate and largest hotspot event ( largest flood basalt ) is the Ontong Java Plateau 100 000000 km3 of lava erupted rapidly. Probably some was. 2011 in particular was very intense, 400 meter tall lava fountains feeding flows up to 13 km away and it occurred beyond the obvious edge of the shield. On the southern end of Sumatra, a kingdom called Kantoli was in its very early stages (it would develop further in the next century), while on the northern end of Java, the kingdom of Tarumanagara was ruled by King Candrawarman. Back in my days as an DC-7 Airtanker Co-pilot flying in that country being a Co-Pilot running the systems, mean you didin’t have to look out. (brain dead surfers). But it is complex. The significance of the low-flow anomalies following Laki and Katmai are above the 97% confidence level using 80 years of data surrounding each event, meaning there is less than a 3% chance that each of these anomalies occurred by natural variability within the climate system. Should have had a more descriptive name. That would actually be a good thing. That meant that Mars cooled down twice as fast. I’m no expert by this Japan event and the really big, somewhat deep Fiji events appear to be slip-slide events rather than subduction events. That makes quite a difference, although it should be noted that in the real world, eruptions slow down as they age and the pressure behind them reduces. I guess one interpretation is that several hundred people could have had a simultaneous instant balding event. On Earth the limit of life support will come from the Sun rather than the Earth’s interior. Well, I’ve got power to the pole, but have to get an electrician to replace my drop. My struggles were nothing in comparison with these workers who struggle daily to make this hazardous journey – breathing toxic fumes – to … Not Right Now? Applying this elsewhere, there were no deep lakes over the skaftar fires area, so the water content of that area probably only contributed a negligible part of the tephra erupted. Out of this dough they made four men, Jaguar Quitze, Jaguar Night, Not Right Now and Dark Jaguar.”. More Content Videos 3D Models ... (which mostly affects farmers) results from inhaling fumes that contain nitrogen dioxide given off by moist silage, such as fresh corn or grains. When the outlook vent opened in 2008, the vog around the crater went through the roof (figuratively speaking) and health concerns led to the closure of the crater rim drive (the explosion hurling rocks on to the parking area was also a factor, of course). Scary times. The sulfur smell is a good indicator of a potential eruption – and it can kill well before the lava does. It’s is also thought to be responsible for accelerating India along its path to push up the himalayas. Limb sliced it off relatively clean. There is also the relatively smaller but way more frequent large eruptions that kilauea will be doing in the next 200,000 years as its shield stage reaches a maximum value. This work examines evidence of a cosmic ray cloud link from a range of sources, including satellite-based cloud measurements and long-term ground-based climatological measurements. The fumes from wood-burning stoves are especially dangerous if you have a respiratory condition, such as asthma. Very discerning little dog..She has this dog Skaftar fires was stratospheric at the start, it’s opening stages would have been like grimsvotn 2011 – a basaltic plinian eruption that on its own would have been been one of Icelands biggest eruptions. Aa for its chances in the GOM. Breathing in the fumes would be most unpleasant. The pyroclastic flows buried six houses in Boakure village though the occupants escaped to the nearby Abaria village. According to local news, they are showing only a single red flag at the beach. Laki clearly and dramatically impacted global weather (temperature) but never remotely released aerosols into the stratosphere. Same thing with ichthyosaurs surviving the T/J extinction, and big lamniform sharks surviving the K/Pg event. and drifted SW, W, NW, and N. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 2 km of the crater. During training, one story that is used to emphasize this importance is the story of a peanut butter and jelly sandwich that was inadvertently left behind during a ships construction. I’ve even seen one paper that looked at tropical volcanoes having a greater scavenge rate for SO2 from the higher humidity, lessening the amount that makes it to the stratosphere. These values are not particularly accurate, by the way. Earth has a very big iron core for what is otherwise a standard silicate planet, it is on the threshold between being called an iron planet. https://www.facebook.com/extremeexposurefineartgallery/photos/pcb.1941127855956518/1941099292626041/?type=3&theater, I woud enjoy to see Deccan In action But SO2 does not dissolve: it survives the eruption column and can reach high altitudes. Evidence from ground-based studies suggests that some weak but statistically significant cosmic ray-cloud relationships may exist at regional scales, involving mechanisms related to the global electric circuit. I see that the news lied again. Earth being the largest rocky planet, haves the most internal heating among the solid objects. I guess 50Ktons isn’t enough SO2 to have a significant effect on temperature despite its location near the equator and the column height. A Larger earth would have stronger mantle convection and more and smaller plates, A larger Earth would likely be very geologically active with numerous ocean ridges and hyperactive spreading centers and subduction zones. Our matlipoo will not eat anything she sniffs first. Mars litosphere is likley many 100 s of km thick (2009), however, have shown that Forbush decreases associated with CME passage results in lower troposphere clouds containing less liquid water. The plume drifted W and NW, causing ash and scoria to fall in areas from Dangale in the NNE to Jogari in the SW part of the island. Yep. The idea is what I wanted to highlight the bit I didn’t copy continues on in the same vain. As soon as that Northern ‘sort of’ an eye-wall goes feet dry, this thing is pretty much done. Great post. Chances are that you wouldn’t have been able to go anywhere within 100 km of the active vents because they would be surrounded by lava. I’m assuming by aquatic dinosaurs you mean plesiosaurs or mosasaurs. The other tree damaged by Ivan was removed several months ago, and would have surely whacked my house. So more warming and more dimming harming the food chain. Also no oxygen, you need photosynthesis to generate that and a weaker star from distance as well as a lot of the light being blocked would result in less oxygen. And the dust veil thrown up by the impact would have combined with the cirrus shield from the Deccan Traps. Over time, the aerosols float down and enter the upper troposphere. That was sourely a huge plume head. Breathing in volcanic smog irritates the lungs and mucous … A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. In the long run, prolonged exposure to sulfur dioxide has been associated with asthma and other similar conditions. Skaftar was probably the very top of the ‘big’, it seems to have been particularly aggressive at the start even compared to other eruptions like it. The highest performing athletes would all have to contend with SO2 destroying their lungs. It could be that there are very large deep magma reservoirs under nyamuragira that will one day feed much bigger flows in the rift. Thats likley the largest Superplume events. The sulfur above the saturation limit is eventually expected to be outgassed into the atmosphere. Hotspot flood basalts probably have a major advantage in that sector because most of the magma will surface, like in Hawaii now.