[1][28] Japanese historian Ikuhiko Hata states that up to 50,000 Japanese became POWs before Japan's surrender. [28] Unlike the prisoners held by China or the western Allies, these men were treated harshly by their captors, and over 60,000 died. During the war, this led to wounded personnel being either killed by medical officers or given grenades to commit suicide. In addition, wounded Japanese soldiers sometimes tried to use hand grenades to kill Allied troops attempting to assist them. [47]a, As the Japanese forces in China were mainly on the offensive and suffered relatively few casualties, few Japanese soldiers surrendered to Chinese forces prior to August 1945. [28], ^a Gilmore provides the following numbers of Japanese POWs taken in the SWPA during each year of the war; 1942: 1,167, 1943: 1,064, 1944: 5,122, 1945: 12,194[47], This article is about personnel from Japan held as POWs by the Allies. In an attempt to win better treatment for their POWs, the Allies made extensive efforts to notify the Japanese government of the good conditions in Allied POW camps. [54] Similarly, Japanese sailors rescued from sunken ships by the US Navy were questioned at the Navy's interrogation centres in Brisbane, Honolulu and Noumea. While the Western Allies notified the Japanese government of the identities of Japanese POWs in accordance with the Geneva Convention's requirements, this information was not passed onto the families of the captured men as the Japanese government wished to maintain that none of its soldiers had been taken prisoner. [29] Furthermore, in many instances, Japanese soldiers who had surrendered were killed on the front line or while being taken to POW compounds. US Navy submarines were occasionally ordered to obtain prisoners for intelligence purposes, and formed special teams of personnel for this purpose. (2008), Japanese prisoners of war of World War II, 1929 Geneva Convention for the Sick and Wounded Armies in the Field, war crimes committed against US and Allied nationals, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, https://www.nytimes.com/1998/04/12/world/japan-s-blossoms-soothe-a-pow-lost-in-siberia.html, http://www.japansubculture.com/the-last-japanese-man-remaining-in-kazakhstan-a-kafkian-tale-of-the-plight-of-a-japanese-pow-in-the-soviet-union/, "Understanding the Enemy: Military Intelligence, Political Warfare and Japanese Prisoners of War in Australia, 1942–45", United States Army Center of Military History, Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Prisoners of the Japanese found themselves in camps in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and other Japanese-occupied countries. [9] Attitudes towards surrender hardened after World War I. [24] Hoyt in "Japan’s war: the great Pacific conflict" argues that the Allied practice of taking bones from Japanese corpses home as souvenirs was exploited by Japanese propaganda very effectively, and "contributed to a preference to death over surrender and occupation, shown, for example, in the mass civilian suicides on Saipan and Okinawa after the Allied landings". These interrogations were painful and stressful for the POWs. [23], Japanese soldiers' reluctance to surrender was also influenced by a perception that Allied forces would kill them if they did surrender, and historian Niall Ferguson has argued that this had a more important influence in discouraging surrenders than the fear of disciplinary action or dishonor. https://allthatsinteresting.com/ravensbruck-womens-concentration-camp [30] As a result, Allied troops believed that their Japanese opponents would not surrender and that any attempts to surrender were deceptive;[31] for instance, the Australian jungle warfare school advised soldiers to shoot any Japanese troops who had their hands closed while surrendering. [34] Allied forces mounted an extensive psychological warfare campaign against their Japanese opponents to lower their morale and encourage surrender. [63], Most Japanese captured by US forces after September 1942 were turned over to Australia or New Zealand for internment. 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